Impeachment de Dilma é golpe de Estado, decide Tribunal Internacional

Nove especialistas estrangeiros em direitos humanos constituem júri para analisar processo contra o Estado democrático e concluem pela nulidade do afastamento da presidenta

O processo de impeachment da presidenta Dilma Rousseff se caracteriza como um golpe ao Estado democrático de direito e deve ser declarado nulo em todos os seus efeitos. Esta foi a tônica da sentença proferida hoje (20) pelos nove especialistas internacionais em direitos humanos que constituíram o júri do Tribunal Internacional Sobre a Democracia no Brasil, evento organizado no Rio de Janeiro pela Via Campesina, a Frente Brasil Popular e a Frente de Juristas pela Democracia. Segundo a sentença, que será encaminhada ainda esta semana aos senadores e aos ministros do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), “o processo de impeachment da presidenta da República, nos termos da decisão de sua admissibilidade pela Câmara dos Deputados e pelo Senado Federal, viola todos os princípios do processo democrático e da ordem constitucional brasileira”.

Participaram do corpo de jurados o bispo mexicano Raul Veras, que ficou conhecido por suas ações em prol dos direitos humanos quando era frei dominicano e concorreu ao Prêmio Nobel da Paz em 2010; o advogado e político mexicano Jaime Cárdenas; o jurista italiano Giovanni Tognoni, membro do Tribunal Permanente dos Povos; a senadora pelo Partido Comunista Francês Laurence Cohen; a filósofa espanhola Maria José Dulce, especialista em temas ligados à globalização; a advogada norte-americana com ascendência iraquiana Azadeh Shahshahani, especializada em defesa dos direitos humanos de imigrantes muçulmanos; o jurista e acadêmico costa-riquenho Walter Montealegre; o professor de Direito colombiano Carlos Augusto Argoti, da Universidade de Rosário, em Bogotá; e o argentino Alberto Felipe, professor da Universidade Nacional de Lanús.

Antes de proferir a sentença, os jurados tiveram de responder a quatro perguntas apresentadas pelo presidente do Tribunal, o jurista Juarez Tavares: 1) O impedimento da presidenta da República, em conformidade com os termos de sua tramitação no Congresso Nacional, viola a Constituição da República?; 2) O procedimento de impeachment, sem obter a demonstração do cometimento de delito de responsabilidade pela presidenta da República, se caracteriza como golpe parlamentar?; 3) No curso do procedimento de impeachment, o devido processo legal, cláusula constitucional com igual respaldo na Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos (Pacto de São José da Costa Rica) tem sido violada?; 4) O procedimento de impeachment caracterizado como golpe parlamentar deve ser declarado nulo e, portanto, também todos os seus efeitos?

Após ouvir as testemunhas e sustentações orais da acusação e da defesa e examinar todos os documentos, pareceres e declarações constantes dos autos, o júri internacional por unanimidade respondeu sim às quatro perguntas propostas por Tavares: “O fundamento comum de todos os pronunciamentos ofertados no Tribunal reside na vacuidade do pedido de impeachment e na inexistência de delito de responsabilidade ou de conduta dolosa que implique um atentado à Constituição da República e aos fundamentos do Estado brasileiro. Os jurados entenderam que o impedimento neste caso se caracteriza como verdadeiro golpe ao Estado Democrático de Direito e deve ser declarado nulo em todos os seus efeitos”, diz a sentença.

Sem crime de responsabilidade

Os jurados também consideraram que, no que diz respeito ao objeto do processo autorizado pelo STF e analisado pelo Congresso Nacional, as chamadas “pedaladas fiscais”, está provado que Dilma não cometeu crime de responsabilidade, o que justificaria seu impedimento: “Como se depreende do Artigo 85 da Constituição, não há que se confundir entre violação do orçamento e violação das regras de sua execução financeira. Estas últimas estão vinculadas às normas de administração financeira e não à lei orçamentária. Uma vez que não são normas orçamentárias, a sua violação não pode ser objeto de crime de responsabilidade”, diz a sentença.

Por seu turno, prosseguem os jurados, “os decretos expedidos pela presidenta da República e contestados no pedido de impeachment se destinavam à abertura de créditos suplementares necessários à execução do orçamento e estavam todos devidamente autorizados pelo Artigo 4 da Lei de Orçamento Anual de 2015”. Assim, segundo os julgadores internacionais, não se configuram como créditos abertos sem autorização.“Deve-se dizer ademais que essas aberturas de crédito não aumentaram os gastos da União. Mais de 70% dos créditos suplementares obedeciam a uma determinação do Tribunal de Contas da União. Isso implica que a presidenta da República, neste caso, ao expedi-los, limitava-se a cumprir um dever legal.”

Quanto ao suposto descumprimento, por parte da União, de dívidas com o Banco do Brasil relativas ao financiamento agrícola, ficou demonstrado, segundo o júri, que não havia prazo fixado para o pagamento, o que elimina a alegação de atraso: “Não se trata de empréstimo ou de abertura de crédito, mas sim de subvenção para que se efetuassem atos imprescindíveis à consecução da política agrária brasileira conforme as demandas populares pelas quais a presidente foi eleita. O atraso é irrelevante, pois todos os empréstimos foram quitados. Também neste caso as imputações feitas à presidenta da República não constituem crime de responsabilidade”, diz a sentença.

Mídia e Judiciário

A sentença proferida pelo júri composto por nove especialistas internacionais também procurou caracterizar o golpe em curso no Brasil: “Os golpes de Estado não podem ser reduzidos somente a intentonas militares, ainda que estas tenham sido sua forma mais comum. Também são caracterizados como golpes de Estado aqueles atos de destituição de governantes legitimamente eleitos quando tomados em desconformidade com as regras constitucionais e em violação de tratados e convenções internacionais. Essa violação pode acontecer tanto por decisão do Parlamento quanto da Suprema Corte. Na América Latina são paradigmáticos os golpes de Estado produzidos pelo Parlamento desde 1859, quando no Peru o governo foi destituído. Mais recentemente, isso aconteceu em Honduras em 2009 e no Paraguai em 2012”.

No Brasil, disseram os jurados, “o golpe está assentado não só na decisão parlamentar, mas também na legitimação que essa decisão política obteve no Poder Judiciário, que não enfrenta questões de fundo importantes, como a ocorrência ou não do crime de responsabilidade ou a violação de princípios constitucionais relacionados ao contraditório, à ampla defesa e à fundamentação das decisões”. O papel da mídia também não foi esquecido na sentença: “O golpe pode ser visto no reforço da agressiva desconstrução efetuada pelos meios de comunicação de massa da própria pessoa da presidenta, demonstrando – por vezes de modo disfarçado, por vezes notório – um preconceito machista”.

Segundo os jurados, “o golpe em curso no Brasil também incorpora outras motivações, como o mal-estar das elites frente ao acesso das camadas mais pobres da população aos recursos da sociedade de consumo e também frente à ampliação dos gastos com programas sociais de integração necessários ao cumprimento de finalidades expressas na Constituição brasileira em seu Artigo 3, como a redução da pobreza e da marginalização e a redução das desigualdades sociais e regionais”.

Fonte: Rede Brasil Atual

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