Risco de Ebola chegar ao Brasil é mínimo, garante Ministério da Saúde

O novo surto do vírus do Ebola na África Oriental vem preocupando autoridades em todo o mundo. De acordo com o último boletim da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), a doença já matou 826 pessoas na Guiné, na Libéria e em Serra Leoa desde o início deste ano. No entanto, apesar da gravidade da doença, o risco do Ebola chegar ao Brasil ainda é muito pequeno, garante o Ministério da Saúde do país.

“Pelas características do vírus Ebola, a possibilidade que ele se propague ao Brasil é muito pequena”, diz o secretário de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro, Jarbas Barbosa, em entrevista à RFI. Ele descarta a existência de casos suspeitos no país atualmente.

É esse baixo risco que faz com que a OMS não recomende a suspensão de viagens aos países afetados pela doença, explica Dr. Jarbas Barbosa. “É muito improvável que uma pessoa portadora da doença consiga fazer uma viagem internacional depois de apresentar os sintomas”, ressalta. “Recomendamos aos indivíduos que frequentem as nações onde há o surto de Ebola que evitem ter contato com sangue e secreções de doentes”, completa.

O secretário garante, no entanto, que apesar do baixo risco de propagação do Ebola no Brasil, todos os portos e aeroportos internacionais contam com setores da Agência de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa) que estão preparados para lidar com o problema. O sistema também compreende unidades de saúde, como hospitais e centros, onde os casos suspeitos podem ser isolados e tratados.

Mortalidade chega a 90%

O vice-presidente do Comitê Científico de Medicina de Viagem da Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Jessé Reis Alves, aponta o que é essencial saber sobre o Ebola. “É um vírus que se dissemina através de secreções e não através de vias respiratórias. É uma doença grave, cuja mortalidade pode atingir 90% dos infectados. O vírus produz um quadro de alterações de coagulação que podem resultar em hemorragias, falência do fígado, dos rins e alterações pulmonares”, explica.

Dr. Jessé Reis Alves lembra, porém, que ainda não há um vasto conhecimento sobre a doença, especialmente sobre o foco primário do vírus e sobre como bloquear sua transmissão. “Acredita-se que um dos reservatórios naturais sejam  morcegos que entrariam em contato com animais domésticos ou próximos às residências, e que estes transmitiriam o vírus através do contato com seres humanos”, relata.

Rápida propagação na África

Dr. Jessé Reis Alves acredita que uma série de fatores pode contribuir para a rápida e intensa propagação do Ebola na África, a principal delas é a falta de informação sobre a doença. “Em locais onde existe uma comunicação eficaz, as pessoas sabem como se comportar mais apropriadamente. O essencial é que o doente seja isolado para que ele não contamine outras pessoas”, analisa.

Além disso, “existe uma crença que os próprios profissionais de saúde ajudam a disseminar o vírus, então muitas pessoas rejeitam os cuidados médicos. Também existe uma questão relacionada à prática de ritos fúnebres, em que as pessoas têm um contato muito próximo com o cadáver e que ajuda a propagar o Ebola”, enumera o especialista.

Preocupação exagerada

Dr. Jarbas Barbosa também alerta para que as pessoas evitem propagar informações falsas sobre a doença ou diagnósticos incorretos que sobrecarreguem os serviços de saúde. “Uma preocupação que nós temos é de evitar uma reação exagerada e que leve ao pânico”, explica Dr. Jarbas Barbosa. “É preciso tratar as suspeitas de casos com base em critérios clínicos e epidemiológicos”, sublinha.

O público brasileiro pode obter mais informações sobre o vírus Ebola e recomendações oficiais do governo no site www.saude.gov.br. O site da organização Médicos Sem Fronteiras(MSF) também conta com publicações sobre a doença.

2014 tem a pior epidemia

O Ebolavirus foi descoberto em 1976, com surtos da doença no Sudão e na República Democrática do Congo, quando 431 pessoas morreram. A pior epidemia é a de 2014, com 826 mortos e 1.440 casos até o momento. Outros graves surtos aconteceram em 1995 (245 mortos), 2000 (224 mortos) e 2007 (186 mortos), todas na África.

O Ebola é contraído com contato direto com sangue, secreções e outros fluídos corporais de pessoas ou animais contaminados. Em algumas áreas da África, indivíduos foram infectados após o contato com chimpanzés, gorilas, morcegos frutívoros, macacos, antílopes selvagens e porcos-espinhos contaminados encontrados mortos ou doentes na floresta tropical. Além disso, há casos em que pessoas contraíram a doença em enterros, após contato com vítimas da doença.

Sintomas e diagnóstico

Os sintomas do vírus do Ebola aparecem de dois a 21 dias após a infecção. A doença é caracterizada por características como febre, dores de cabeça e musculares, inflamação da garganta e fraqueza. Com a evolução da doença, são registrados vômitos, diarreia, deficiência renal e hepática, coceiras e sangramentos internos e externos.

O diagnóstico oficial do vírus só pode ser confirmado através de testes de laboratório, realizados em cinco etapas. Até hoje, não há uma vacina contra o Ebola. O tratamento padrão consiste na hidratação do paciente, mantendo estáveis os níveis de oxigênio e pressão sanguínea, além do tratamento de outras infecções.

De acordo com o MSF, o fim de um surto de Ebola só é declarado oficialmente após 42 dias sem nenhum novo caso detectado.

Fonte: RFI

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